Title Graphic

Marriages, Adoption and Children

Children within the same family but of differing parents can be distinguished as follows:
  1. If a parent marries again, the children from this marriage are half brothers or sisters to the children of the previous marriage.
  2. If a parent marries again to a person with children from a previous marriage, the children are step brothers or sisters.
  3. If parents adopt a child a check of the local adoption laws needs to be made, but usually, in the law, the adopted children are not distinguished from natural children. PLEASE NOTE: Local Privacy rules may make it illegal to identify such children as adopted without their and/or their adoptive parents' consent. Remember: some children may not know [or want to know] that they are adopted.
An example of local law regarding adoptions in South Australia:
In 1925 an act of Parliament relating to the Adoption of Children was passed which gave the adoptive parents the legal status of natural parents: "Upon adoption the child legally becomes a member of the adopting family as if it were natural born. The parents become legally the parents of the adopted child as if the child has been a natural child born to them." In a genealogical pedigree, the adopted child belongs in the family of his or her adoptive parents. If a person who has been adopted wishes, it is possible to trace the family tree of the birth parents. The information obtained is classified as private to the adopted person, and is not to be published. Any pedigree that is to be published should only relate to the adoptive parents, and there should be no indication that a child is adopted.

Relationship Chart

For a relationship to exist there must be an ancestor who is common to both individuals. In the chart below the Common Ancestor is Box 0 on both the horizontal and vertical scales.

To use the chart:
On the top row find the relationship of one person to the common ancestor and follow the column straight down. Find the other person's relationship to the common ancestor on the left-hand column and follow that row straight across. Their relationship is described where the projected row and column meet.
As an example, say we have a great great granddaughter of the common ancestor and we want to see what her relationship is to the great granddaughter of the common ancestor. By following the rows and columns we see that they are second cousins once removed.


0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
Common Ancestor
Son or Daughter
Grandchild
Great Grandchild
2nd Great Grandchild
3rd Great Grandchild
4th Great Grandchild
5th Great Grandchild
6th Great Grandchild
7th Great Grandchild
1
Son or Daughter
Siblings (Brother or Sister)
Nephew or Niece
Grand Nephew or Niece
Great Grand Nephew or Niece
2nd Great Grand Nephew or Niece
3rd Great Grand Nephew or Niece
4th Great Grand Nephew or Niece
5th Great Grand Nephew or Niece
6th Great Grand Nephew or Niece
2
Grandchild
Nephew or Niece
First Cousin
1st Cousin Once Removed
1st Cousin Twice Removed
1st Cousin 3 Times Removed
1st Cousin 4 Times Removed
1st Cousin 5 Times Removed
1st Cousin 6 Times Removed
1st Cousin 7 Times Removed
3
Great Grandchild
Grand Nephew or Niece
First Cousin Once Removed
Second Cousin
2nd Cousin Once Removed
2nd Cousin Twice Removed
2nd Cousin 3 Times Removed
2nd Cousin 4 Times Removed
2nd Cousin 5 Times Removed
2nd Cousin 6 Times Removed
4
2nd Great Grandchild
Great Grand Nephew or Niece
1st Cousin Twice Removed
2nd Cousin Once Removed
Third Cousin
3rd Cousin Once Removed
3rd Cousin Twice Removed
3rd Cousin 3 Times Removed
3rd Cousin 4 Times Removed
3rd Cousin 5 Times Removed
5
3rd Great Grandchild
2nd Great Grand Nephew or Niece
1st Cousin 3 Times Removed
2nd Cousin Twice Removed
3rd Cousin Once Removed
Fourth Cousin
4th Cousin Once Removed
4th Cousin Twice Removed
4th Cousin 3 Times Removed
4th Cousin 4 Times Removed
6
4th Great Grandchild
3rd Great Grand Nephew or Niece
1st Cousin 4 Times Removed
2nd Cousin 3 Times Removed
3rd Cousin Twice Removed
4th Cousin Once Removed
Fifth Cousin
5th Cousin Once Removed
5th Cousin Twice Removed
5th Cousin 3 Times Removed
7
5th Great Grandchild
4th Great Grand Nephew or Niece
1st Cousin 5 Times Removed
2nd Cousin 4 Times Removed
3rd Cousin 3 Times Removed
4th Cousin Twice Removed
5th Cousin Once Removed
Sixth Cousin
6th Cousin Once Removed
6th Cousin Twice Removed
8
6th Great Grandchild
5th Great Grand Nephew or Niece
1st Cousin 6 Times Removed
2nd Cousin 5 Times Removed
3rd Cousin 4 Times Removed
4th Cousin 3 Times Removed
5th Cousin Twice Removed
6th Cousin Once Removed
Seventh Cousin
7th Cousin Once Removed
9
7th Great Grandchild
6th Great Grand Nephew or Niece
1st Cousin 7 Times Removed
2nd Cousin 6 Times Removed
3rd Cousin 5 Times Removed
4th Cousin 4 Times Removed
5th Cousin 3 Times Removed
6th Cousin Twice Removed
7th Cousin Once Removed
Eighth Cousin
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